However, the Kyoto Protcol targets are being challenged by climate change deities, who condemn strong scientific evidence of the human impact on climate change. An eminent scholar believes that these climate change deniers are “good” in violation of Roussau`s idea of the social contract, which is an implicit agreement between members of a society to coordinate efforts in the name of general social utility. The movement to reject climate change is hampering efforts to reach an agreement on climate change as a global collective society.  1992 – The UN Conference on Environment and Development takes place in Rio de Janeiro. This includes the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organisation (EC) have ratified the agreement, accounting for more than 61.6% of Schedule I emissions in 1990.  One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called on world leaders to agree on an agreement to curb global warming at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly on 23 September 2014 in New York. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, the date of the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol. The United States signed the protocol on November 12, 1998, under President Clinton. However, in order to become binding on the United States, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate, which had already adopted the non-binding Byrd Hagel resolution in 1997, in which it expressed the rejection of an international agreement that did not require developing countries to reduce their emissions and “would seriously harm the U.S.
economy.” The resolution was adopted by 95-0.  Although the Clinton administration signed the treaty, it was never submitted to the Senate for ratification. On 8 December 2012, at the end of the 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, an agreement was reached to extend the protocol until 2020 and set a date for 2015 for the development of a new document to be implemented from 2020 (see more information under the direction of e. Mail).  The outcome of the Doha negotiations received mixed reactions, with small island states critical of the package as a whole. The second Kyoto commitment period applies to about 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions per year. Other conference outcomes are a timetable for a comprehensive agreement that is expected to be adopted by 2015 and will encompass all countries.  At the Doha meeting of the parties to the UNFCCC on 8 December 2012, the European Union`s chief climate negotiator, Artur Runge-Metzger, pledged to extend the binding treaty for the 27 European Member States until 2020 until 2020 until 2020. The Berlin mandate was recognized in the Kyoto Protocol, as developing countries were not subject to emission reduction commitments during the first Kyoto commitment period.  However, the great potential for emissions growth in developing countries has strained negotiations on this issue.
 In the final agreement, the Clean Development Mechanism was developed to limit emissions in developing countries, but so that developing countries do not bear the costs of reducing emissions.  The general assumption was that developing countries would be subject to quantitative obligations in subsequent commitment periods and that, at the same time, developed countries would meet their first-round obligations.  The 2010 Cancun Agreements provide for voluntary commitments from 76 developed and developing countries to control their greenhouse gas emissions.  In 2010, these 76 countries were collectively responsible for 85% of annual global emissions.   After a series of lectures, Embroiled in disputes, COP21 2015 delegates in Paris, France, signed a comprehensive but non-binding agreement to limit global average temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while maintaining this rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels.