This strategy included energy and climate policy, including the 20/20/20 targets, namely a 20% reduction in carbon DIOXIDE (CO2) emissions, an increase in the market share of renewable energy to 20% and a 20% increase in energy efficiency.  The initiative to address losses and damage as a particular theme of the Paris Agreement came from the Alliance of Small Island States and Least Developed Countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most affected by the negative effects of climate change.  However, developed countries were concerned that looking at the issue as a separate issue that goes beyond adaptation would create additional climate funding or imply legal responsibility for catastrophic climate events. Implementation of the agreement by all Member States will be evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.  The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. While strengthening CNN`s ambitions is an important objective of the global inventory, efforts beyond mitigation are evaluated. The five-year revisions will also assess adaptation, climate change provisions, and technology development and transfer.  Countries are also working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement.
There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to fulfil commitments that are strictly the other` and there was concern that differences of opinion on each Member State`s share of the EU reduction target and the British vote to leave the EU would delay the Paris Pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient. concerned that aggregate greenhouse gas emission estimates for 2025 and 2030, resulting from projected national contributions, are not covered by the most cost-effective scenarios at 2oC, but result in a forecast level of 55 gigatonnes. By 2030, and acknowledging “that much greater efforts will be needed to reduce emissions in order to keep the increase in the average global temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.   [Clarification required] Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to warming mitigation.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets.