Did The Munich Agreement Work

29-30 September 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Agreement, under which Czechoslovakia must cede its border regions and defence zones (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. In December 1938, Sudetenland was the most pro-Nazi region in the Empire, with half a million Sudeten Germans as members. Daladier was convinced that the agreement would not appease the Nazis and that disaster would still occur, while Chamberlain thought there was reason to rejoice, falsely convinced that he had achieved peace. The day after the agreement was signed, Germany recaptured the Sudetenland. The Czechoslovaks do not take revenge. On March 15, 1939, Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia, and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist. The day before, Slovakia had become an autonomous Nazi fantoid state. Many Sudeten Germans got jobs in the protectorate or as Gestapo agents because they spoke fluent Czech. Northern Russia, which hoped for independence, was taken over by Hungary.

The munich quote in foreign policy debates is also common in the twenty-first century. [107] During negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal by Secretary of State John Kerry, a Republican lawmaker from Texas called the negotiations “worse than Munich.” Kerry himself had invoked Munich in a speech in France, in which he campaigned for military action in Syria by saying, “This is our Munich moment.” [108] As the threats of Germany and a European war became increasingly evident, opinions changed. Chamberlain was rewarded for his role as one of the “Men of Munich” in books like the Guilty Men of 1940. A rare defense of the agreement during the war came in 1944 from Viscount Maugham, who had been Chancellor of the Lord. Maugham considered the decision to create a Czechoslovak state with significant German and Hungarian minorities to be a “dangerous experiment” in light of previous disputes and attributed the agreement to the need for France to free itself from its contractual obligations in the face of its lack of preparation for war. [63] After the war, Churchill`s memoirs of that time, The Gathering Storm (1948), claimed that Chamberlain`s appeasement had been false in Munich, and they recorded Churchill`s pre-war warnings of Hitler`s plan of attack and the madness that Britain insisted on disarmament after Germany had achieved air parity with Britain. While acknowledging that Chamberlain was acting for noble motives, Churchill argued that Hitler should have resisted in Czechoslovakia and that efforts should have been made to involve the Soviet Union. Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations. The Czechoslovak government, which recognized the desperation of fighting alone against the Nazis, reluctantly capitulated (30 September) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany, from October 10, the territory of the Sudetenland and de facto control of the rest of Czechoslovakia, as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On September 30, after a break, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After translating it for him, Hitler`s interpreter happily agreed.

In the meantime, the British government has asked BeneŇ° to ask for an ombudsman. BeneŇ° did not want to sever his government`s relations with Western Europe, so he reluctantly agreed. . . .